Artificial Insemination. Semen collected from the bull and implanted into the cow using a straw, by hand
A place where animals are slaughtered and prepared for sale as meat
Abreviation for accuracy. The higher this percentage figure the more likely that it reflects the animals true worth.
Automatic Cluster Removal occurs when a cow has finished giving milk the machine detects the reduced flow, cuts off the vaccuum to the cluster and gently pulls off the cluster.
the old standard for measuring field areas and there are 2.47 acres in a hectare.
art, practice of cultivating land
Person who inspects crops and advises farmers on chemical etc.
Protein is made up of the these simple chemicals, some of which are essential in an animals diet for health and growth.
Small sap sucking insects which infest cereals and carry a virus disease Barley Yellow Dwarf Virus - BYVD.
Semen collected from the bull and implanted into the cow using a straw
A quality standard scheme to ensure high quality food production systems
A measure of the Bacterial content of milk. Must be below 100,000 bacteria per ml.
The method of collecting straw by packing it into bales or packs
Fencing wire with pointed spikes to prevent stock from escaping
Pulse crop grown for human or animal consumption containing protein
Providing loose straw for animals to lie on
Cattle which are managed to produce meat
Cattle fed on a specific diet to encourage planned growth rates
The Beef Value ranks animals on the expected carcase financial merit of their offspring.For example, a Beef Value for a bull of 20 means his carcase is estimated to be £20 more valuable than the carcase from a bull with a Beef Value of 0.
Large plastic bags containing fertiliser or seed - may hold 600 - 1000kg of product
A by-product of the brewing industry. Contains the remains of barley after malt has been extracted, but still tastes good to a cow.
A castrated bull. It behaves less agressively than an entire bull. Also known as a steer
The fat found in milk, usually 3.5% to 4% by weight.
A chemical found in lime, chalk and limestone which are used to neutralize soil acidity. Essential for crop growth. Also essential together with phosphorus for healthy teeth and bones in animals.
Calves are removed from their mothers and brought up in specialist housing
The birth of a calf
The Common Agricultural Policy of the European Union which regulates support policies for farmers.
The body of a meat animal after slaugter, when skin, offal, head and feet have been removed.
The removal of testes on a male animal to prevent unwanted reproduction
A measure of the number of white blood cells found in milk. Gives an indication of the level of mastitis in the dairy herd.
Crops like wheat, barley and oats - planted in either autumn or spring
A certificate issued when a person is trained in the correct use of a machine
Pesticides used to control weeds, diseases or pests
The green pigmentation of the plant leaves
A disease which an animal will suffer over a long period.
Holding area for storing silage
Bacterial infections of sheep common at lambing
The equipment which is applied to a cows teats to extract the milk. Composed of a clawpiece to which four teat cups are attached.
Carbon dioxide, Water, Oxygen
The first nutritious milk produced by the mother cow after a calf is born
Machine used to harvest grain crops like wheat, oilseed rape etc.
When a soil becomes too firm and hard to allow good plant root growth
Prepared feed containing protein, energy etc. to encourage growth or production
The term to describe the shape of an animal belonging to a defined breed. Milk producing breeds have a very different shape to meat producing breeds.
When something unwanted enters a quality product
Grain must be kept cold to avoid pests breeding in it once it is in store
A company that supplies agricultural products to farmers
Female of the species cattle. Generally refering to an animal which has had one or more calves.
Precise assessments of pest pressure and crop performance which can be tied to a specific location for better interpretation.
Different types of crop - e.g. wheat or barley
An animal whose parents were from different breeds
Comparison of attribute data by location in two or more map layers
A term used as an estimate of protein content of feedstuffs. Crude protein includes low value sources of protein.
Individual lying area within a covered shed for dairy cattle to rest
The term for disposing of breeding anaimls which are unsuitable to use for further breeding.
The process of preparing a field for planting using machinery
Implement with fixed legs and tines used for mixing soil
A track up the side of any sort of hill made by a bulldozer.
A group of cows used for milk production
Dressed carcus weight. This is usually 50 - 60% of the weight ofthe live animal.
A carefully planned mix of feeds to encourage growth or production
When a ewe or cow has trouble in giving birth by itself
Sheep are drenched and dipped to protect them against pests and illness. Drenching at weaning at and at regular intervals thereafter can prevent some worm parasites but the parasites, mostly worms, are becaming resistant to the drench. Dipping is done after shearing by pour-on, swim, shower or spray on treatment to control lice and flystrike outbreaks. Lousy sheep don’t do well.
Removal of small horns when animal is young
Implement used to chop soil in order to create a seedbed
Fungi, bacteria or viral infections of plants or animals
Removal of portion of a lambs tail for health reasons
Application of liquid medication via the animal’s mouth
Grain crops must be dried to the correct moisture levels by blowing air through them
Implement used to plant seeds like wheat, barley etc.
A course of antibiotics given to milking cows, when they are dried off, in order to reduce the chance of mastitus occurring in the next lacation.
The ripened seed head of the plant
A legally required, plastic tag, clipped in the animal’s ear for identification
Estimated breeding value of an animal. A figure computed from recordings of an animal and its parents’ performance.
A term for one productive activity on a farm, eg dairy, sheep, beef, wheat, barley enterprise . Each product has its own particular costs and returns.
tract of land for cultivation or rearing livestock
The process of "pickling" silage in acid conditions by excluding air
Man-made product containing nutrients for plant growth
An area of enclosed land used for the production of crops or the grazing of livestock
Using machinery in fields
Specific method of feeding cattle or sheep for fattening purposes
These are costs which do not vary directly with size of enterprise. Eg a tractor could be used for growing 300 ha of cereals or 350 ha. Some costs eg fuel are difficult to allocate to enterprises because records are not accurate enough.
The woolly coat of a sheep
A group of sheep
Young cattle being reared as replacements to the dairy and beef cow herds.
The term used for crops grown to feed animals, eg grass, maize, turnips, kale, clover
Machine used to gather and chop grass or maize for silage
A squirt of milk from each teat before the milking cups are applied. The milk which is in the teat is the milk which is most likely to be contaminated with bacteria. Removing it before milking ensures that the rest of the milk taken from the cow is pure and free from contamination. A milker can also check to see if there are any signs of mastitis in the udder by looking for clots in the foremilk.
A condition in cattle where twins are born, one being male and the other female. This usually results in the female twin being infertile.
A technique of branding cattle and horses using an extremely cold branding iron. This results in the animal growing white hair at the site of the brand. Most effective if used on black animals where it gives an easily read identity number.
The most widely used breed of cow for producing milk (black and white)
A disease caused by a fungus
The period of time an animal is pregnant. 147 days for a ewe, 3months 3 weeks 3 days for a sow (114 days), 283 days for a cow
The meaty upper part of the rear leg of a lamb
Shed or bin where harvested grains are dried and stored
Ripe seed part of a plant that is harvested
This is a measure of the efficiency of an enterprise and is defined as Output minus variable costs
Hectare is the measure of area and is equal to 10,000 square metres or approx 2.47 acres
Process of cutting and gathering a crop
Period when an animal is ready to be inseminated
Renewal of hedges using young plants
Term for a young cow aged up to having her second calf.
A chemical used to kill weeds
A database containing records of parentage of pedigree animals
A popular style of milking parlour where the cows stand in two rows, overlapping each other to form the herrinbone pattern. This arrangement leads to a shorter parlour than one where the cows are end to end behind each other as in a tandem parlour.
Pointed outgrowth on head of cattle, goats or sheep
The integrated Administration and Central System records farm details of eligibility for arable area payments,beef special premium, suckler cow premium, etc.
Farm tools or machinery
Fertiliser which is factory produced from industrial chemicals
The term used when antibiotic preparations are infused into the teat, usually to treat mastitis.
Pens or loose box where animals suspected of carrying infectious diseases can be housed while awaiting confirmation of health status. Prevents disease spread to healthy animals.
A high speed tractor
A breed of dairy cow originating from the island of Jersey. Produces milk with a high butterfat content
A unit of energy. MegaJoules are used to measure the energy value of farm foodstuffs.
A young goat
The period of days in a year that a cow is producing milk
The sugar found in milk.
The time when ewes give birth to lambs
Leaves on grass which vary in size according to grass species
Field sown with grass seed which will last for one or more years. Short term leys usually yield heavier crops than permanent grass.
A breed of beef cattle
Injection given to freeze a specific area of the animal ready for treatment
Plant grown for its high protein content, used in animal feed
Any mechanical implement used to carry out fieldwork on farms
A mineral needed by plants and animals. In plants deficiency causes yellowing of leaves. In animals deficiency causes grass staggers.
Crop grown for conserving as winter feed for cattle (like sweet corn)
Inflamation of the udder caused by bacteria. Serious cases lead to loss of udder function and in some rare cases death of the cow. Care needs to be taken during milking to avoid spread of the bacteria responsible for the disease.
Traditional grass field cut for hay in the summer.
A fungal disease of crops, characterised by white fluffy pustules on leaves, ears and stems.
A meter attached to the milk line from the milking cluster which measures the amount of milk produced by a cow and signals the ACR to remove the teat cups from the cow when milk flow ceases.
When the cow’s udder is stimulated by a suckling calf or the action of the milking process she releases the milk stored in her udder. If the cow is frightened the let down process is suppressed by andrenalin in her body.
A farm building where the roof slopes in one direction only, often across the shorter dimension. Access to the building is usually where the roof is highest.
Margin over purchased foods. Value of milk produced less the cost of food purchased for the cow. This shows the value of the contribution from food grown on the farm.
Sprayer mounted on the back of a tractor, rather than trailed machine
Machine used to cut grass for silage
Man-made product containing nitrogen for plant growth
One of the college farms used for housing lambing ewes
Crop with yellow flowers grown to produce cooking oil and animal feed
Residues from a previous crop
This is the value(in £)of the production from an enterprise. Eg a cow gives 9000 litres of milk worth 15p per litre. Output is £1,350 of milk per cow per year.
An animal which lives on another animal and which often causes health problems. Examples are roundworms in animal intestines(internal parasites) and lice on the skin(external parasites).
The building which houses milking equipment where the cows are milked once, twice or three times per day
Term used to describe the birth process
Grass field used for grazing animals. It may be permanent or a ley.
Pregnancy diagnosis by the vet(via rectal examination) takes place about 6 weeks after service.
Pulse crop grown for human or animal consumption containing protein
An animal whose parents are recorded as true to the breed in a herdbook
A fertilizer containing phosphorus which is vital for healthy crop root and shoot growth.
The process whereby plants use sunlight to convert CO2 and H20 into sugar and O2
Small areas of crops used to test chemicals or varieties
Tractor drawn implement used to invert the soil
Land that has been inverted by a plough
Potentially fatal, flu-like illness
The wearing tips on a cultivator that cut into the soil
A fertilizer containing potassium which is needed for heathy crop growth and good yields.
Milk substitute fed to calves once they have been removed from the mother
Rotary implement used to break down lumps in soil after ploughing
Before the planted crop breaks through the soil surface
Period before ewes produce lambs
A planting machine which places seeds individually in the soil
A measure of the breeding ability of farm animals eg the number of lambs born per year from a ewe.
An essential part of all animals and plants. Milk contains 3-4% protein (casein).
A fluctuating vaccuum applied to the teat cup liner to simulate the sucking of a calf and thus extracting milk from the cow in a natural way.
A pea or bean crop grown for animal and human food
An animal of which the parents are the same breed
Milk that is free from contamination and is sold for human consumption
Milk quotas restrict the quantity of milk a farmer can produce from his herd. They are imposed by the EU to prvent over supply of milk.
Varieties that may withstand a disease to a greater or lesser extent
Tractor drawn implement with rings used to firm the soil
Worm-like creatures that infect sheep and feed in their gut causing illness
The largest of a cow’s four stomachs. It holds a huge amount of grass where bacteria break down the fibre into energy for the cow.
Ultrasonic detection of unborn animals (foetus)to establish if mother is pregnant
Soil that has been worked down ready for planting
The flowering part of a plant which produces seed or grain
A machine that has its own power source (engine)
Liquid that carries sperm collected from a bull for artificial insemination
The wearing edges on a plough that cut into the soil
Grass or maize harvested and stored under plastic for winter cattle feed
A dual purpose breed of cattle, primarily used for beef production in the UK
The father of an animal
A chemical found in common salt. Salt is essential for animal heath and which can also boost yields of root crops.
Various types of soil - e.g. clay, sand, silt, peat, chalk
See certificate of competence
A machine which spreads fertilizer by throwing the fertilizer from a spinning disc
The reproductive parts of a fungus responsible for spreading it across a crop
A crop that has had pesticides applied to it
Machine used to apply chemicals to a crop
Cereal planted in spring to produce grain for beer, whiskey or animal feed
A castrated bull, also known as a bullock.
A measure of the number of animals kept per hectare, Usually measured in Livestock Units (1 LU = one cow or 6 ewes) per hectare.
Person responsible for looking after livestock on the farm
The ripened stalk of the plant, once the grain has been removed
The remains of the plant stalk left behind from a harvested crop
The remains of the sugar beet root after sugar has been extracted. A tasty food for cattle and sheep, high in energy, may be wet or dried. Dried SBP must not be fed to horses as it will swell up inside their stomach.
A measure of the thickness or leafiness of a grass crop
The part of the milking machine which attaches to a cow’s teat by vaccuum suction. It has a rubber lining which pulsates against the teat.
A breed of sheep or cattle noted for good meat quality which is used to breed offspring to be raised for meat production.
The process whereby grains are separated from the plant inside a combine harvester
When a plant produces side shoot - each of which will produce a flowering head
fertilizer applied in the spring to growing crops (usually nitrogen fertilizer)
Introducing male sheep into the flock to enable reproduction
The milk secreting organ of a cow or sheep. Milk is produced in the spongy tissue in the udder and secreted from the teats. Cows have four teats and ewes two.
Undegradeable protein is high value protein which by passes the rumen and is digested by enzymes.
Injections given to animals to prevent or cure diseases or pests
These are costs which vary directly with the scale of the enterprise. For example to grow one hectare of wheat requires £100 spent on seed, fertilizer and sprays. One hundred hectares will cost 100 times as much.
Different types of the same species of plant
Plants self seeded from the previous crop which may cause competition and contamination problems in the new crop.
Cereal planted in autumn to produce grain for beer, whiskey or animal feed
Cereal planted in autumn to produce grain for porridge or feed
Cereal planted in autumn to produce grain for bread, biscuits or animal feed
Commonly used around sheep paddocks
Area where farm machinery is maintained and repaired
Work does not stop on a farm. Animals need to be fed and the cows milked even on Christmas day.
Regular intervals where a harvested weight has been obtained along with a GPS reading. A display of the weights translated to kg/Ha or yield provides a yield map.